Crosstalk between ROS-dependent apoptotic and autophagic signaling pathways in Zn(II) phthalocyanine photodynamic therapy of melanoma.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2020 Jan 18;:
Authors: Valli F, García Vior MC, Roguin LP, Marino J
Melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer, highly resistant to conventional therapies. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a minimally invasive treatment modality that combines the use of a photosensitizer, visible light and molecular oxygen, leading to ROS generation in the specific site of irradiation. The cationic zinc(II) phthalocyanine Pc13 has shown to be a potent photosensitizer in different melanoma cell lines. In this study, we explored the intracellular signaling pathways triggered by Pc13 PDT and the role of these cascades in the phototoxic action of Pc13 in human melanoma A375 cells. ROS-dependent activation of MAPKs p38, ERK, JNK and PI3K-I/AKT was observed after treatment. Inhibition of p38 reduced Pc13 phototoxicity, whereas blockage of ERK did not affect this response. Conversely, JNK inhibition potentiated the effect of Pc13 PDT. Results obtained indicate that p38 is involved in the cleavage of PARP-1, an important mediator of apoptosis. On the other hand, Pc13 irradiation induced the activation of an autophagic program, as evidenced by enhanced levels of Beclin-1, LC3-II and GFP-LC3 punctate staining. We also demonstrated that this autophagic response is promoted by JNK and negatively regulated by PI3K-I/AKT pathway. The blockage of autophagy increased Pc13 phototoxicity and enhanced PARP-1 cleavage, revealing a protective role of this mechanism, which tends to prevent apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, reduced susceptibility to treatment and increased activation of autophagy were detected in A375 cells submitted to repeated cycles of Pc13 PDT, indicating that autophagy could represent a mechanism of resistance to PDT. The efficacy of Pc13 PDT and an improved phototoxic action in combination with chloroquine were also demonstrated in tumor spheroids. In conclusion, we showed the interplay between apoptotic and autophagic signaling pathways triggered by Pc13 PDT-induced oxidative stress. Thus, autophagy modulation represents a promising therapeutic strategy to potentiate the efficacy of PDT in melanoma.
PMID: 31962157 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Dormant tumor cells interact with memory CD8+ T cells in RET transgenic mouse melanoma model.
Cancer Lett. 2020 Jan 18;:
Authors: Flores-Guzmán F, Utikal J, Umansky V
Melanoma is an aggressive form of skin-cancer. Melanoma cells are characterized by their plasticity, resulting in therapy resistance. Using RET transgenic mouse melanoma model, we characterized dormant tumor cells accumulated in the bone marrow (BM) and investigated their interaction with effector memory CD8+ T cells. We found that cells expressing melanoma-associated antigen tyrosinase related protein (TRP)-2 and stemness marker CD133 represented less than 1.5% of all melanoma cells in primary skin lesions and metastatic lymph nodes. The majority of these cells were negative for the proliferation marker Ki67. In the BM, CD133+TRP-2+ melanoma cells displayed an aberrant expression of p16, p27, Ki67 and PCNA proteins, suggesting their dormant phenotype. Moreover, these cells were characterized by an elevated expression of various molecules characterized stemness, metastatic, angiogenic and immunosuppressive properties such as CD271, CD34, HIF-1α, CXCR3, CXCR4, VEGR2, PD-L1, CTLA-4, CD39 and CCR4 as compared to their CD133- counterparts. Disseminated BM dormant TRP-2+ tumor cells were found to be co-localized with memory CD8+ T cells. Our data suggest that these dormant melanoma cells in the BM could play an important role in the maintenance of memory T cells in the BM.
PMID: 31962142 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Immunotherapy of experimental melanoma with ICOS-Fc loaded in biocompatible and biodegradable nanoparticles.
J Control Release. 2020 Jan 18;:
Authors: Nausicaa C, Elena B, Luca GC, Davide R, Benedetta F, Gianluca M, Monica A, Annalisa C, Giuseppe C, Francesco T, Fabrizio C, Teresa CM, Junji Y, Maria RJ, Filippo R, Roberta C, Chiara D, Umberto D
Inducible T-cell costimulator (ICOS) upon binding to its ligand (ICOSL) mediates adaptive immunity and antitumor response. Thus, antitumor therapies targeting the ICOS/ICOSL pathway hold great promise for cancer treatment. In this regard, ICOSL triggering by a soluble recombinant form of ICOS (ICOS-Fc) hampered adhesiveness and migration of dendritic, endothelial, and tumor cells in vitro. Furthermore, in vivo treatment with ICOS-Fc previously showed the capability to inhibit lung metastatization of ICOSL+ B16-F10 melanoma cells when injected intravenously in mice, but it failed to block the growth of established subcutaneous B16-F10 murine tumors. Thus, we asked whether passive targeting of solid tumors with ICOS-Fc-loaded biocompatible and biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs) could instead prove effectiveness in reducing tumor growth. Here, ICOS-Fc was loaded in two types of polymer nanoparticles, i.e. cross-linked β-cyclodextrin nanosponges (CDNS) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) NPs and in vitro characterized. In vivo experiments showed that treatment of C57BL6/J mice with ICOS-Fc loaded into the two nanoformulations inhibits the growth of established subcutaneous B16-F10 tumors. This anticancer activity appears to involve both anti-angiogenic and immunoregulatory effects, as shown by decreased tumor vascularization and downmodulation of IL-10 and Foxp3, two markers of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Overall, the substantial in vivo anticancer activity of ICOS-Fc-loaded CDNS and PLGA NPs against different components of the tumor microenvironment makes these nanoformulations attractive candidates for future combination cancer therapy.
PMID: 31962094 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Role of fucosyltransferase IV in the migration and invasion of human melanoma cells.
IUBMB Life. 2020 Jan 21;:
Authors: Shan X, Dong W, Zhang L, Cai X, Zhao Y, Chen Q, Yan Q, Liu J
Malignant melanoma is one of the most aggressive human tumor types, mainly due to its high invasion capability, metastatic properties, and the absence of effective treatments. Glycosylation serves a pivotal role in the migration and invasion of melanoma. However, differences in glycosylation between high and low metastatic melanoma cells and how these regulate migration and invasion by altering the expression of fucosyltransferases (FUTs) remain unclear. In the present study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis revealed that the composition profiling of fucosylated N-glycans differed between high metastatic C8161 and low metastatic A375P cells. Further analysis revealed that FUT4 expression was significantly increased in C8161 cells. Melanoma tissue arrays further demonstrated that FUT4 was overexpressed in metastatic samples. Altered FUT4 expression was accompanied by a change in the migration and invasion capacity of the cells. In addition, the migration and invasion potential of melanoma cells were decreased in C8161 and increased in A375P cells upon altering FUT4 expression levels by small interfering RNA or complementary DNA transfection. Furthermore, regulating FUT4 expression markedly modulated the activity of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathway, which affected melanoma cell migration and invasion. In conclusion, FUT4 is a novel biomarker and regulator of the migration and invasion of melanoma cells and may serve as a therapeutic target for melanoma.
PMID: 31961483 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
β,β-Dimethylacrylshikonin Induces Apoptosis in Melanoma Cell Lines by NOXA Upregulation.
J Nat Prod. 2020 Jan 21;:
Authors: Stallinger A, Kretschmer N, Kleinegger F, Brvar L, Liegl-Atzwanger B, Prokesch A, Durchschein C, Bauer R, Deutsch A, Rinner B
Melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer, with high metastasis rates and poor prognosis. Survival rates and possible therapies depend on the state of the tumor and its mutational profile. BRAF and NRAS are the most frequent driver mutations. Currently, there is no efficient therapy for NRAS-mutated or late-stage melanoma. In this study, the therapeutic potential of β,β-dimethylacrylshikonin (DMAS) was investigated on melanoma. The influence of DMAS was determined in five different melanoma cell lines with different mutational profiles. The effects of this compound on cell viability, apoptosis, and gene and protein expression were examined. The results obtained were validated in vivo. DMAS significantly reduced the viability of several melanoma cell lines in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, DMAS induced caspase-3-dependent apoptosis via NOXA upregulation, as confirmed by NOXA knockdown experiments. This is the first time that NOXA-dependent apoptosis was shown with respect to a shikonin derivative and melanoma. Additionally, tumor regression and necrosis under DMAS treatment were demonstrated in vivo. Importantly, BRAF as well as NRAS-mutated metastatic human melanoma cell lines were treated successfully in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, DMAS showed promising results and is worthy of further study.
PMID: 31961147 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]